logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
sports organization volunteer university students leisure literacy leisure time exercise

The Effect of Leisure Literacy on Leisure Exercise in University Students

Tebessum Ayyildiz-Durhan

Within the scope of the research, which aims to determine the leisure literacy and leisure exercise levels of the university students who volunteer in.


Within the scope of the research, which aims to determine the leisure literacy and leisure exercise levels of the university students who volunteer in sports organizations, it is aimed to analyze the relationship and the differences of certain variables with measurement tools, as well as to examine the relationship and impact between leisure literacy and leisure exercise. In this context, 207 sports organization volunteers who participated in the study participated in the data collection, as well as a demographic information form, as well as the “Leisure Literacy Scale” and “Leisure-Time Exercise Scale" was used. In this study, the internal reliability coefficient for the Leisure literacy scale was .94 and .70 for the leisure exersice questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Tukey (HSD-LSD) test and Pearson Correlation test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. The findings reveal that participants have high leisure literacy (81.25 ± 14.04) and men exhibit more active leisure exercise levels, certain variables change leisure literacy and leisure exercise levels. On the other hand, positive strong relationships between leisure literacy and leisure exercise were determined, and leisure literacy was found to have a positive effect on leisure exercise level. As a result of the research, it can be stated that the volunteer participants who take part in sports organizations and evaluate their leisure time actively, the literacy knowledge, background and action level for their leisure time is an important factor that makes individuals spend their leisure by exercising.

Keywords: Sports organization, volunteer, university students, leisure literacy, leisure time exercise.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Ainsworth, B. E., Berry, C. B., Schnyder, V. N., & Vickers, S. R. (1992). Leisure-time physical activity and aerobic fitness in African-American young adults. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13(7), 606-611.

Arlan, S. (2018). Development of a leisure literacy scale within the context of adult education: validity and reliability study. The Journal of International Education Science, 5(14), 101-116.

Arslan, S. (2013). A new concept in literacy: leisure literacy. Journal of Education and Sociology, 4(2), 145-149.

Asici, M. (2009). Literacy as a personal and social value. Journal of Values Education, 7(17), 9-26.

Barton, B. (2001). Directions for literacy research: Analysing language and social practices in a textually mediated world, Language and Education, 15(2-3), 92-104. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500780108666803.

Bauman, A. (2004). Health benefits of physical activity for older adults – epidemiological approaches to the evidence. In M. Morris, A. Schoo (Eds), Optimizing exercise and physical activity in older people. Elsevier Science Limited.

Bjorgen, A.M., & Erstad, O. (2015). The connected child: tracing digital literacy from school to leisure. Pedagogies: An International Journal, 10(2), 113-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/1554480X.2014.977290.

Braten, I., Lie, A., Andreassen, R., & Olaussen, B. S. (1999). Leisure time reading and orthographic processes in word recognition among Norwegian third and fourth grade students: Reading and writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 11(1), 65–88.

Brown, W. J., Mishra, G., Lee, C., & Bauman, A. (2000). Leisure time physical activity in Australian women: relationship with wellbeing and symptoms, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(3), 206-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2000.10608901.

Caldwell, L. L., Baldwin, C. K., Walls, T., & Smith, E. (2004). Preliminary effects of a leisure education program to promote healthy use of free time among middle school adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 36(3), 310-335.

Candy, P. C. (2003). Lifelong learning and information literacy (Report for U.S. National Comission on Libraries and Information Science and National Forum on Information Literacy). https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f94d/1b7db0ed803048bf2781fec5bb1daa64c3f7.pdf. 

Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 100(2), 126–131.

Cohen, R.J., Swerdlik, M. (2010). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to tests and measurement (7th ed.). McGraw Hill.

Dai, Y. D., Chen, K. Y., Gong, X., Zhuang, W. L., Li, A. N., & Huan, T. C. (2019). Developing Chinese tourist's leisure literacy scale from the perspective of Chinese culture. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 109-122.

Dunn, N.J., & Wilhite, B. (1997). The effects of a leisure education program on leisure participation and psychosocial well-being of two older women who are home-centered. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 31(1), 53-71.

Edwards, S. (2002). Physical exercise and psychological wellness. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 4(2), 40-46.

Eldeniz Cetin, M., & Cay, E. (2020). Examining leisure activity engagement of students with intellectual disability. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 6(1), 57-66. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.6.1.57.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Sage Publications.

Gando, Y., & Muraoka, I. (2015). Health impact of light-intensity physical activity and exercise. In K. Kanosue, S. Oshima, Z.B, Cao & K. Oka (Eds), Physical Activity, Exercise, Sedentary Behavior and Health. Springer.

Giacobbi, P.R., Hausenblas, H.A., & Frye, N. (2005). A naturalistic assessment of the relationship between personality, daily life events, leisure-time exercise, and mood. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 6(1), 67–81.

Godin, G., & Shephard, R.J. (1985). A simple method to assess exercise behavior in the community. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 10(3), 141-146.

Godin, G., & Shephard, R.J. (1997). Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 36–38.

Godin, G. (2011). The Godin-Shephard leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. Health and Fitness Journal of Canada, 4(1), 18-22.

Gungor, N. (2014). The volunteerism concept (notion) in sports organizations and reflections within Turkey (Publication No. 370772) [Master Thesis, University of Bahcesehir]. Council of Higher Education Thesis Center.

Gungor, N. B., Ylmaz, A., & Ilhan, E. L. (2019). Gains of a special athlete in the context of quality of life: a case study in line with parent opinions. Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences Journal of Special Education, 20(3), 421-443. https://doi.org/10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.488740.

Hamid, A.& Parvez, M. (2020). Effect of leisure time activity, creativity and gender on academic performance of adolescent students. Studies in Indian Place Names, 40(3), 2565-2572.

Hartman, C.L., Barcelona, R.J., Trauntvein, N.E., & Hall, S.L. (2019). Well-being and leisure-time physical activity psychosocial factors predict physical activity among university students. Leisure Studies, 39(1), 156-164. https://doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2019.1670722.

Hutchinson, S., & Robertson, B. (2010). Leisure education: a new goal for an old idea whose time has come. Journal of Research in Social Pedagogy /Sips - Pedagogia Social. Revista Interuniversitaria, 19, 127-139.

Jordan, K. A., Gagnon, R. J., Anderson, D. M., & Pilcher, J. J. (2018). Enhancing the college student experience: outcomes of a leisure education program. Journal of Experiential Education, 41(1), 90–106.

Kara, K.E. (2012). The participation of motivations, expectations and the satisfaction assessments of the volunteers, participated in universiade 2011 erzurum winter olympic games (Publication No. 314597) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Marmara]. Council of Higher Education Thesis Center.

Karasar, N. (2008). Bilimsel arastırma yontemi [Scientific research method] (18th ed.). Nobel.

Kurtipek, S., & Gungor, N.B. (2019a). Individual innovation: A research on sports manager candidates. Journal of Education and Learning, 8(1), 264-271.https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v8n1p264.

Kurtipek, S., & Gungor, N. B. (2019b). Determination of the Perceptions of Sport Managers on the Concept of Organization: A Metaphor Analysis Study. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 7(2), 57-63. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v7i2.3934.

Kurudayioglu, M., & Tuzel, S. (2010). The types of literacy of the 21st century, changing text comprehension and Turkish teaching. Journal of Turkology Research, 28, 283-298.

Lifshitz-Vahav, H., Shrira, A., & Ehud Bodner, E. (2017). The reciprocal relationship between participation in leisure activities and cognitive functioning: the moderating effect of self-rated literacy level. Aging & Mental Health, 21(5), 524-531. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2015.1124838.

Livingstone, S. (2004). Media literacy and the challenge of new information and communication technologies. The Communication Review, 7(1), 3-14, https://doi.org/10.1080/10714420490280152.

Love, K., & Hamston, J. (2003) Teenage boys' leisure reading dispositions: juggling male youth culture and family cultural capital. Educational Review, 5(2), 161-177. https://doi.org/10.1080/0013191032000072209.

Lumpkin, A. (2017). Introduction to physical education, exercise science, and sport (10th ed.). McGraw Hill Education.

Lutz, RS., Lochbaum, MC, Lanning, B., Stinson, L.& Brewer, R. (2007). Cross-lagged relationships among leisure-time exercise and perceived stress in blue-collar workers. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29(6), 687-705.

McFee, G., & Tomlinson, A. (Eds.) (1997). Education, sport and leisure connections and controversies. (2nd ed.). Meyer & Meyer Sport Ltd.

Nippold, M. A., Duthie, J. K., & Larsen, J. (2005). Literacy as a leisure activity: free-time preferences of older children and young adolescents. Language Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 36(2), 93–102.

Okun, M. A., Karoly, P., & Lutz, R. (2002). Clarifying the contribution of subjective norm to predicting leisure-time exercise. American Journal of Health Behavior, 26(4), 296-305.

Palabiyik, H. (2011). An explanation on voluntarizm and voluntary participation to local services. Journal of Administrative Sciences, 9(1), 83-114.

Polat, M. G. (2016). The physical activity/exercise risks. Turkiye Klinikleri Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation - Special Topics, 2(1), 24-9.

Popham, F., & Mitchell, R. (2006). Leisure time exercise and personal circumstances in the working age population: longitudinal analysis of the British household panel survey. Journal of Epidemiol Community Health, 60(3), 270–274. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2005.041194.

Rabinowits, S., Melamed, S., Weisberg, E., Tal, D., & Ribak, J. (1992). Personal determinants of leisure-time exercise activities. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75, 779-784.

Roetert, P.E., Ellenbecker, T.S., & Kriellaars, D. (2018). Physical literacy: Why should we embrace this construct? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(20), 1291–1292.

Sivan, A.& Ruskin, H. (Eds.) (2000). Leisure education, community development and populations with special needs. CABI Publishing.

Sejtanic, S., & Lalic, A. (2016). Communication between students and teachers in realization of extracurricular activities. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 2(1), 45-50. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.2.1.45.

Stebbins, R. A. (1982). Serious leisure: A conceptual statement. Pacific Sociological Review, 25(2), 251-272. https://doi.org/10.2307/1388726.

Stebbins, R. A. (2015). Leisure and the motive to volunteer: Theories of serious, casual, and project-based leisure. Palgrave Macmillan.

Stebbins, R. A. (1996). Volunteering: A serious leisure perspective. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 25(2), 211-224. https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764096252005.

Stebbins, R. A. (2001). New directions in the theory and research of serious leisure. Edwin Mellen Press.

Stebbins, R. A. (2007). Serious leisure: A perspective for our time. Transaction.

Stebbins, R. A. (2009). Serious leisure and work. Sociology Compass, 3(5), 764–774.

Stebbins, R. A. (1992). Amateurs, professionals and serious leisure. McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Stebbins, R. A. (2014). Careers in serious leisure: From dabbler to devotee in search of fulfillment. Palgrave Macmillan.

Stebbins, R. A. (2007b, November). A leisure-based, theoretic typology of volunteers and volunteering. Leisure Studies Association Newsletter, 78, 9–12.

Stebbins, R. A. (2009). Would you volunteer? Social Science and Public Policy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12115-008-9186-1.

Stebbins, R. A. (2013). Unpaid work of love: defining the work–leisure axis of volunteering. Leisure Studies, 32(39), 339-345. https://doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2012.667822

Stebbins, R. A.& Graham, M. (2004). Volunteering as leisure/ leisure as volunteering an international assessment. CABI Publishing.

Steptoe, A., Wardle, J., Fuller, R., Holte, A., Justo, J., Sanderman, R., & Wichstrom, L. (1997). Leisure-time physical exercise: prevalence, attitudinal correlates, and behavioral correlates among young europeans from 21 countries. Preventive Medicine, 26(6), 845–854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.01.028.

Symons Downs, D., Savage, J. S., & DiNallo, J. M. (2013). Self-Determined to Exercise? Leisure-time exercise behavior, exercise motivation, and exercise dependence in youth. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 10, 176-184.

Tsai, H. (2007). To discuss new trend of information literacy from leisure reading behavior and experiences of junior high school students. Association of School Librarianship. Selected Papers.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2019). Literacy. https://en.unesco.org/themes/literacy.

Webber, S., & Johnston, B. (2000). Conceptions of information literacy: new perspectives and implications. Journal of Information Science, 26(6), 381–397.

Whitehead, M. (2001). The concept of physical literacy, European Journal of Physical Education, 6(2), 127-138. https://doi.org/10.1080/1740898010060205.

World Health Organizations. (2018). Physical activity. WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/physical-activity.

Yerlisu Lapa, T., Certel, Z., Kaplan, K., Yagar, G. (2016). The validity and reliability study of leisure time exercise questionnaire for adolescents. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 5(1), 1-9.

Yonten Balaban, A., & Coban Ince, I. (2015). Youth voluntary activities in non-governmental organizations and perception of volunteerism: example of educational volunteers foundation of turkey (TEGV). Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Journal, 30(2), 149-169.